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Medical applications of polyether ether ketone
Yitong Guo, Shenggui Chen, Jing Wang, Bingheng Lu
January-March 2018, 3(1):12-16
Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) has been widely used during the past decades in the medical field. Its versatile nature makes PEEK very popular in a variety of medical devices. The purpose of this article is to summarize the medical applications of PEEK in following fields: cranioplasty, dental implants, interbody fusion, joint replacements, soft-tissue repairs, and cardiac surgery. PEEK, as a biocompatible polymer, has been used in fields related to tissue fixation and reconstruction. This is largely due to its superior mechanical characteristics and biocompatibility. The author believes that as collaboration between medical professionals and engineers becomes more standard, PEEK and its composites will become more available and versatile.
  6 4,575 594
Minimally invasive treatment of pilonidal sinus disease using platelet-rich plasma
Ömer Karahan, Barış Sevinç, Gürcan Şimşek, Recep Demirgül
January-March 2016, 1(1):14-17
Aim: Pilonidal disease is an inflammatory disorder, mainly affecting young adults. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is shown to have a positive impact on the wound healing process. Herein, the study aims to define the application of PRP and report early results. Methods: The study data were collected prospectively. PRP was prepared from the patients' own blood samples, transformed into gel form, and applied to the sinus tract under local anesthesia. Furthermore, the healing rate and recurrence rate of the disease were evaluated. Results: There were 50 cases included in the study, with 48 cases were cured at the end of the 1st month. At this stage, with a median follow-up of 15 months, there have been no documented recurrences. Conclusion: Minimally invasive treatment of pilonidal disease with PRP application has promising results. Treatment of pilonidal disease by PRP can be applied in outpatient clinic and provides total cure in a short time. The method is simple, painless, with no hospital stay required, less wound care, shorter time to return daily activity, and the cost is effective. However, long-term outcomes are unknown, and additional follow-up is required.
  6 4,948 410
Central venous catheterization: An updated review of historical aspects, indications, techniques, and complications
Rafael Cardoso Pires, Noslen Rodrigues, Jonathan Machado, Ricardo Pedrini Cruz
July-September 2017, 2(3):66-70
Central venous catheterization has become an indispensable procedure in various situations in the intensive care unit, emergency room and operation room. There are many applications such as invasive hemodynamic monitoring, parenteral nutrition support, dialysis, chemotherapy, fluid resuscitation and drug administration, though there are some complications associated with catheter placement. There are some articles that discuss the security and advantages of the anatomic landmark technique and ultrasound (US) guidance technique. In this non-systematic review article we searched the current data in Pubmed library.
  5 9,536 1,208
Biomaterials and surgical applications: The translational perspective
Brenda Vega-Ruiz, Rodrigo Ramos-Zúñiga, Ivan Segura Duran, Yara Ursiel-Ortega
October-December 2017, 2(4):85-102
Basic research provides the results necessary to pursue translational work, where basic and translational approaches used in conjunction can allow for an increased impact in solving public health problems. Biomaterials draws from both approaches and are used today in many surgical specialty areas, such as tissue regeneration and regenerative medicine. These materials can be used as replacements for tissue, as scaffolds for regeneration, as substrates for cell growth, as drug-releasing or bioactive molecule-releasing vehicles, and as several other medical devices. Biopolymers used in regenerative medicine provide a good example of such materials and demonstrate the methodology of a translational approach, where the product begins at the laboratory bench, is applied in preclinical stages, and is finally delivered as a new medical solution back to the patient. The biocompatible, biodegradable, and bioactive properties of some of these polymers have opened different possibilities for their use in the repair and/or regeneration of different tissues, including skin, bone, cartilage, nerves, liver, and muscle. This article serves as a review of the properties of these biopolymers, their use in tissue engineering, and promising alternatives in regenerative medicine.
  3 6,189 417
Modeling neurodegenerative diseases by human pluripotent stem cell-induced brain organoid
Feng Tian, Jin Hao, Longyu Hu, Xu Luo, Rui Sun
April-June 2018, 3(2):42-47
Neurodegenerative disease (ND) contains a range of conditions which are primarily characterized by progressive neuronal dysfunction and loss. ND is particularly difficult to cure, due to the vulnerability of the nervous system. Currently, few genes and pathways are found to be related to ND. However, no solitary mechanism appears to be primary in neurodegeneration, and these pathogenic mechanisms likely act synergistically through complex interactions to promote neurodegeneration. Moreover, the existing treatment is mainly focusing on alleviating the symptoms of the disease. Furthermore, recent studies reveal considerable overlaps of symptomatology and genetic risks across the disease subtypes by detailed studies at cellular, molecular and genetic level. To better understand the etiology and pathogenesis of ND, study of the abnormalities at patient level is most ideal. However, direct access to the brain tissues from healthy individuals and patients is very limited. Therefore, an alternative experimental model is required to study the mechanism of ND. The most commonly used models are animal models, including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, zebrafish, and genetically modified mice. However, animal models also have their limitations including partial recapitulation of the disease features and difficulties in modifying disease genes. The recent development in three-dimensional (3D) brain organoids might provide a better experimental model to study ND, because 3D brain organoid system carries great potential to expand the range of both physiological and pathological features that can be found during the development of disease, enabling higher order investigation of mechanism and functionality.
  2 3,748 436
Factors regulating the change of vascular smooth muscle cells in cardiovascular diseases: A mini review
Haocheng Li, Qingfeng Sun, Ye Yao, Chao Yuan, Gaoyan Liu, Bao Jing, Jingbo Li, Haiyang Wang
April-June 2019, 4(2):22-26
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are responsible for blood vessel relaxation contraction and hemodynamics. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major cause of human death worldwide, and the pathophysiological changes to the VSMCs such as apoptosis, hypertrophy, and migration contribute to these diseases. Herein, we recapitulated the importance of molecular factors relevant to the regulation of VSMCs and how VSMCs are involved in these pathophysiological changes. This is significant to the development of therapeutic treatments for various CVDs. A literature search was conducted to identify studies assessing the regulating factors of VSMCs using the Medline and PubMed databases from inception to February 1, 2019. Search terms were applied either as single or in combination. In the present review, we will discuss some of the influential factors that may affect and regulate the changes of VSMCs in CVDs.
  2 2,162 220
An aneurysm-like entity inside a giant carotid body tumor reaching lateral skull base
Hui Zhang, Fangda Li, Yuehong Zheng
April-June 2019, 4(2):32-34
The successful resection of giant carotid body tumors (CBTs) with full protection of cranial nerve is challenging. Meanwhile, entities with fresh blood inside a CBT were commonly considered liquefactive necrosis preoperatively. However, we reported a case with an aneurysm-like entity inside the CBT instead. A patient with lump on the right neck complained of feeling dizzy. She was then reported with a giant CBT reaching lateral skull base. Preoperative imaging revealed a low-density entity inside the tumor, which was considered as liquefaction necrosis. However, during surgery, the low-density area was observed pulsing with fresh blood. Under the collaboration of vascular surgeons and otolaryngologists, the tumor was resected uneventfully. We reported a case of giant CBT over 10 cm and successful resection with no major facial nerve deficit. Moreover, an aneurysm-like entity inside the tumor was observed during the surgery, which was not reported before.
  1 1,649 208
Multiple pelvic osteomyelitis combined with adenocarcinoma: An extremely rare complication following intestinal fistula
Zhen Zhang, Minghua Ji, Shuzhang Guo
July-September 2018, 3(3):54-56
Aim: Intestinal fistula is a common condition with numerous infective complications. Adenocarcinoma in the anal fistula is a rare tumor, and most of the known cases have been documented as case reports. Osteomyelitis of the pelvis is uncommon. Whereas, adenocarcinoma associated with osteomyelitis of the pelvis and anal fistula is a rare case in clinical practice. We report an unusual case of multiple pelvic osteomyelitides, combined with intestinal tumors as a late complication following intestinal fistula. Methods: A case report and review of the pertinent English language literature. Results: To the best of our knowledge, this is the fist report in the English literature to describe multiple pelvic osteomyelitides combined with intestinal tumors as a serious complication following intestinal fistula. The diagnosis was made with the aid of computed tomography imaging, sinus imaging, X-ray film, needle aspiration biopsy, tumor marker tests, surgery, and pathological section. The complication was treated successfully with surgery. Conclusion: Multiple pelvic osteomyelitides combined with adenocarcinoma and anal fistula was indeed a rare case in clinical practice. Heightened awareness and better understanding of this complication would necessitate the early diagnosis and treatment.
  1 2,031 203
Bilateral sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma: An uncommon case in young female patient
Yuan Gao, Weibing Shuang, Xunan Tong, Yuhang Zhang
July-September 2017, 2(3):74-77
Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC), an advanced and uncommon form of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), is more likely to manifest as a unilateral condition, especially in the right kidney, in older people. Here, we report a rare case of bilateral SRCC in a young female, aged 30 years - the youngest reported case of SRCC to the best of our knowledge. The patient complained of osphyalgia and intermittent fever which recurred after symptomatic treatment. Detailed examination, including histopathological analysis of biopsies, confirmed bilateral SRCC (RCC IV) with distant metastases. The patient denied receiving any form of the treatment, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy and died approximately 6 months after the initial symptoms.
  1 2,173 206
Bilateral sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma: An uncommon case in young female patient
Yuan Gao, Weibing Shuang, Xunan Tong, Yuhang Zhang
Ahead of print schedule 0, 0(0):0-0
Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC), an advanced and uncommon form of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), is more likely to manifest as a unilateral condition, especially in the right kidney, in older people. Here, we report a rare case of bilateral SRCC in a young female, aged 30 years - the youngest reported case of SRCC to the best of our knowledge. The patient complained of osphyalgia and intermittent fever which recurred after symptomatic treatment. Detailed examination, including histopathological analysis of biopsies, confirmed bilateral SRCC (RCC IV) with distant metastases. The patient denied receiving any form of the treatment, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy and died approximately 6 months after the initial symptoms.
  1 2,049 87
A case of surgical enucleation of a giant esophageal leiomyoma
Shaohua Zhou, Shanshan Li, Nannan Guo, Wen Zhang
January-March 2017, 2(1):19-21
Esophageal leiomyoma is the most common benign esophageal tumor. When dealing with a giant esophageal tumor, tumor resection, and esophagogastric anastomosis are normally adopted by clinicians. However, postoperatively, patients always experience a poor quality of life because of the destruction of the normal anatomy. We present a case of resection of an esophageal leiomyoma with the integrity of esophagus maintained.
  1 2,770 234
Preoperative neoadjuvant gefitinib used in the treatment of a nonsmall cell lung cancer patient
Weihui Zheng, Weimin Mao
January-March 2017, 2(1):22-24
The epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) has been mainly applied in the second- and third-line treatment of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but it is rarely used as a neoadjuvant therapy. This article aims to summarize and analyze a relevant case so as to provide some clinical experience for targeted neoadjuvant treatment modalities. A patient with NSCLC received the TKI gefitinib for preoperative neoadjuvant targeted therapy. A 76-year-old female who was given gefitinib for the neoadjuvant treatment was analyzed. The patients' general condition and also gender, age, smoking history, and efficacy of the targeted therapy and associated surgical experience were recorded. After the neoadjuvant treatment, the tumor shrinkage was obvious. At surgery, the surface vascular expansion on the tumor was observed. There was no increase in postoperative complications. The surgical pathology was adenocarcinoma of the lung associated with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. Neoadjuvant targeted therapy could be a useful clinical treatment in NSCLC.
  1 2,501 205
Comparing cryoballoon and radio frequency ablation for atrial fibrillation treatment: A Hospital-based follow-up study
Chaojun Wang, Li Chen, Honglan Ma, Chaofeng Sun
April-June 2017, 2(2):37-43
Aim: The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of cryoballoon ablation (CBA) for atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment, and compare it with radio-frequency ablation (RFA). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among AF patients who received CBA or RFA from November 2014 to January 2017 at The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University. All patients were followed up from discharge date to either occurrence of death or April 2017. Results: Totally, 154 patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria of having episodes of electrocardiogram-documented AF within 2 months before hospitalization, 13 patients were excluded due to predetermined exclusion criteria, 29 (13 in the CBA group and 16 in the RFA group) were lost to follow-up, and 133 patients (57 in the CBA group and 76 in the RFA group) completed follow-up. The primary efficacy endpoints (AF recurrence or repeat ablation) occurred in 17 patients in the CBA group and 29 patients in RFA group (1-year Kaplan–Meier event-rate estimates, 33.2% and 37.9%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43–1.5; P = 0.50). Long treatment success rate (no AF recurrence or repeat ablation during the follow-up) was 71.2% in CBA group and 64.6% in RFA, respectively (P = 0.47). The primary safety endpoints occurred in 10 patients in CBA group and 19 patients in the RFA group (1-year Kaplan–Meier event rate estimates, 17.3% and 21.2%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.34–1.57; P = 0.65). Conclusion: This paper presents the results of a first-ever study in a Chinese clinical setting and shows CBA had equivalent efficacy and safety in comparison to RAF as a treatment for AF. CBA is a promising new method for AF treatment.
  1 2,331 186
The overexpression of leucine-rich repeat-containing g-protein-coupled receptor 5 in pituitary adenomas
Jiuzhou Li, Yuqi Zhang, Ningning Cheng, Quancheng Zhao, Hongen Liu, Shaowei Song
April-June 2016, 1(2):37-40
Aim: To determine the leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) level in human pituitary adenomas and the role of LGR5 in the development of human pituitary adenomas. Methods: Immunohistochemistry is performed to determine the expression of LGR5 in pituitary adenomas and normal pituitaries. LGR5 expression level is determined by the criteria as follows. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate any significant differences of LGR5 among individual groups. The correlation between expression and the other clinical factors were evaluated by using the Mann-Whitney test and one-way ANOVA. Results: LGR5 is significantly overexpressed in pituitary adenomas compared to normal pituitaries. Conclusion: The overexpression of LGR5 may facilitate the growth of these tumors. Potentially, the finding in the study could be exploited to develop innovative molecular targeted diagnosis and treatment for human pituitary adenomas.
  1 2,646 296
High expression of mir-25 predicting poor prognosis in gastric cancer
Chuanli Ren, Wenshu Wang, Chongxu Han, Hui Chen, Deyuan Fu, Daxin Wang, Ming Shen
July-September 2016, 1(3):69-74
Aim: The aim of this study was to explore miR-25 expression pattern and its prognostic value in gastric carcinoma (GC). Methods: MiR-25 expression was detected using miRNA-locked nucleic acid in situ hybridization in 180 patients with GC undergoing surgery. Correlation with clinicopathological features and overall survival (OS) was analyzed. Results: MiR-25 expression was decreased in 10.0% (18/180) of GC, increased in 62.2% (112/180), and unchanged in 27.8% (50/180), compared to samples of morphologically normal tissue taken from the same patient (P < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that high miR-25 expression, tumor stage, tumor status, node status, and tumor size were significant negative prognostic predictors for OS in patients with GC, and the results were shown as P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.002, P> 0.001, and P = 0.001, respectively. High miR-25 expression remained a significant predictor of shorter survival in stage II (n = 56, P = 0.015) and stage III (n = 92, P < 0.001) GC. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that tumor status (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79-4.62; P = 0.151), stage (HR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.30-3.94; P = 0.004), lymph node metastasis (HR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.73-2.68; P = 0.309), high expression of miR-25 (HR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.53-3.72; P < 0.001), and tumor size (HR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.40-3.74; P = 0.001) predicted shorter OS. Conclusion: High expression of miR-25 was associated with decreased OS. Thus, miR-25 may be useful for prognosis evaluation and may provide a novel treatment target in patients with GC.
  1 2,575 272
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the treatment of pediatric nephrolithiasis: Comparison of the outcome between preschool and schoolgoing children: A single-center study
Nadeem Iqbal, Salman Assad, Aisha Hasan, Muhammad Usman Shabbir, Taimur Hijazi, Saeed Akhter
October-December 2016, 1(4):91-94
Aim: This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in the treatment of renal stones, between preschool and schoolgoing children. Methods: From January 2007 to March 2015, a total of 103 ESWL-treated children were considered for the study. Stone clearance rate, number of retreatment required, complication rate, and ancillary procedures used were evaluated. Results: Of the 103 patients with age limits of 2-14 years, 36 were <5 years (preschool group) and 67 were ≥5 years (schoolgoing group) of age. The mean age and mean stone size in preschool group was 3.26 ± 1.29 years and 0.97 ± 0.25 cm, respectively, whereas in schoolgoing group, it was 10.31 ± 3.01 years and 14 ± 0.68 cm, respectively. The stone-free rate in preschool and schoolgoing group was 34/36 (94.4%) and 57/67 (85%), respectively, with no statistical difference between the two (P = 0.2076). Post-ESWL complications, including hematuria, mild fever, flank pain, steinstrasse requiring ureteroscopy, and sepsis were seen in both preschool and schoolgoing groups, at varying rates that failed to reach statistical significance among the two (P > 0.05). Mean number of shock waves required for stone clearance was significantly less in preschool group (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: ESWL is equally effective for managing nephrolithiasis in both <5-year or ≥5-year aged children.
  1 3,409 3,840
Specificity and potency of curcumin derivative 64PH in inhibiting HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation
Xueqian Li, Qiaowei Zheng, Yingchen Zhuo, Jingguo Chen, Wenbin Ma, Xue Zhao, Peipei Zhao, Xuanlin Liu, Haimin Lei, Junwang Xu, Weiyi Feng
January-March 2017, 2(1):1-5
Aim: This study aimed to investigate the specificity and potency of curcumin derivative 64PH in inhibiting the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells in vitro. Methods: Various concentrations of 64PH were administrated to HepG2 hepatoma cells and HL7702 hepatic cells. The viability of cells was evaluated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The concentration-inhibition rates in the two cell lines were calculated, and the accumulation normal distribution function was adopted to fit their rate curves. The differences of the rates between the two cells were observed on the 3rd day of 64PH treatment. The maximum difference and the 95% credibility interval of the corresponding 64PH concentration were evaluated. Results: 64PH inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 and HL7702 cells in vitro. To fit the concentration-effect curves on the 3rd day, the determination coefficients (γ2) were more than 0.99, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 3.07 and 4.28 μg/mL of 64PH, respectively, and their ratio was 1.39. To fit the normal distribution function of the differences of concentration-inhibition rates between HepG2 and HL7702 cells (s2 = 0.9861), the maximum difference of inhibition rates was 33.58%, and the corresponding concentration of 64PH and the 95% credibility interval were 2.65 and 3.52 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: In vitro, HepG2 cells are more sensitive than HL7702 cells due to the presence of 64PH. The inhibition of cell proliferation induced by 64PH is stronger in HepG2 than in HL7702 at concentrations between 2.65 and 3.52 μg/mL. 64PH has the potential to be a therapeutic approach in hepatocellular carcinoma and to achieve the desired efficacy and safety.
  1 2,479 265
The role of ischemia-modified albumin levels in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis
Ersin Turan, Baris Sevinç, Hüseyin Kurku, Gürcan Simsek, Recep Demirgül, Ömer Karahan
July-September 2017, 2(3):62-65
Aim: Although there are several auxiliary laboratory tests, diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA) mainly depends on clinical findings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) in the diagnosis of AA. Methods: IMA levels of histopathologically confirmed AA cases and healthy volunteers were evaluated. Results: Mean IMA levels were 9.6 ± 12.5 absorbance units (ABSU) in the AA group and 3.04 ± 0.47 ABSU in the control group. Moreover, IMA levels positively correlated with the diagnosis of AA (r = 0.309, P = 0.013). The preoperative mean IMA level was 9.6 ± 12.5 ABSU, while the postoperative mean IMA level was 6.9 ± 11.7 ABSU (P = 0.001). There was a significant decrease in IMA levels after appendectomy. Conclusion: This study shows elevated IMA levels in patients with AA and a significant decrease of IMA levels after appendectomy. Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of AA, and IMA levels can be used as an accessory parameter in diagnosis.
  1 2,683 239
A modified uncut roux-en-y anastomosis in laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy: Balance of the cost and minimally invasion
Shun Zhang, Tao Du, Dongyi Yan, Xiaohua Jiang, Chun Song
January-March 2018, 3(1):1-5
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the cost of minimally invasive surgery using a modified uncut Roux-en-Y anastomosis technique in laparoscopic distal radical gastrectomy patients with gastric cancer. Methods: Clinical and cost data were reviewed on the perioperative outcomes of 15 gastric cancer patients who received laparoscopic distal radical gastrectomy using uncut Roux-en-Y anastomosis from January 2016 to December 2016 in the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Shanghai East Hospital. Results: The mean operation time was 175 ± 30 min. Mean hospitalization expense was 9829 USD and mean linear stapler expense was 2940 USD. Laparoscopic distal radical gastrectomy with uncut Roux-en-Y anastomosis was successfully carried out in all the patients. There were no serious complications and no death in this series. Conclusion: Modified uncut Roux-en-Y anastomosis in laparoscopic distal radical gastrectomy may be a good way to balance the cost and minimally invasive surgery.
  1 3,146 257
MicroRNA-564 promotes the differentiation and proliferation of synovial mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes by targeting transforming growth factor beta 1
Xiangyi Sun, Pin Zhang, Lei Zhang, Jianning Zhao, Liwu Zhou
January-March 2018, 3(1):6-11
Aim: To investigate the role of miR-564 in promoting the proliferation and differentiation of synovial mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) to chondrocytes. Methods: Third-generation SMSCs were used, and the experiments involved untreated SMSCs (control; Group A), SMSCs transfected with Hsa-miR-564 inhibitor NC (inhibitor blank; Group B), and SMSCs transfected with Hsa-miR-564 inhibitor (Group C). The expression of miR-564 in SMSCs was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The SMSCs were induced to form cartilage for 3 weeks. The morphology of the induced chondrocytes was observed by hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue staining and cell viability recorded. Chondrocyte differentiation of SMSCs related to genes and proteins (COL2A1, Aggrecan, SOX9, transforming growth factor beta 1 [TGF-β1], and Smad4) was assessed. The chondrogenic effect of miR-564 was examined after blocking the target gene TGF-β1. Results: The morphology and characteristics of the induced cells were consistent with those of chondrocytes. The cell proliferative rate of Group C (miR-564 downregulation) was significantly higher than that of other groups. The expression of genes and proteins related to chondrocyte differentiation was significantly decreased in Group C. The relative expression of genes related to cartilage differentiation decreased after blocking TGF-β1. Conclusion: The downregulation mediated by miR-564 can promote the differentiation and proliferation of SMSCs into chondrocytes by targeting TGF-β1.
  1 2,106 217
The cross-contaminated cell lines of adenoid cystic carcinoma: A crucial concern
Nan-Nan Liu, Sen-Lin Zhang, Wei Chen
January-March 2017, 2(1):10-13
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a common type of salivary gland cancer, characterized by slow growth but high incidence of distant metastasis. Distant metastasis occurs in 25%–50% of ACC patients and more commonly in lungs. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the aggressive growth of ACC remains obscure. Human tumor cell lines are extremely useful in studying cancer biology, under both in vitro and in vivo condition. Unfortunately, the tumor cell lines are susceptible to cross-contamination, by other cell lines, during routine culture. Recent studies have proved that most of the ACC cell lines, established for preclinical research, are either cross-contaminated or nonhuman cells. Here, we review the literature assessing the identity of ACC cell lines, dated up to September 1, 2016, using PubMed, EMBASE, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases with the following keywords: “adenoid cystic carcinoma,” “cell line,” and “characterization” or “contamination.” According to the results, only salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC)-83/SACC-lung metastasis, the HPV-transformed ACC-112 and the two newly established moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma-ACC-01 and LACC-1 cell lines are authentic ACC cell lines. These results suggest that, in the future, it is crucial to authenticate the ACC cell lines before research.
  1 3,516 342
Advances in multi-therapies for the treatment of Ewing's sarcoma
Lei Zhang, Xing Zhou, Xiaozhou Liu, Chengjun Li, Sujia Wu
January-March 2017, 2(1):14-18
Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is a type of bone and soft tissue tumor that is highly invasive and primarily occurs in children and adolescents. In recent years, with the combination chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy, prognosis, and quality of life have significantly improved. The overall survival (OS) rate is 65%–75%. However, metastasis and recurrence after surgical resection are still the main determinants of mortality. The OS rate in these patients is <30%. Exploring the pathogenesis of ES and looking for effective targeted therapies are the primary focus of many research teams. A global effort to improve the clinical efficacy of chemotherapy while reducing the toxic side effects, has led to further advances. We summarize the current multidisciplinary treatment advances in ES, with an emphasis on molecular targeted therapy and immunotherapy.
  1 3,885 403
Application of clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats/cas9 editing technologies in breast cancer research
Biskup Ewelina, Lu Cai, Xiaoyan Lin, Craig Kingston, Fengfeng Cai
April-June 2017, 2(2):44-49
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most heterogeneous diseases. The specific clinical and pathological features of each patient's BC diagnosis determine the response to specific agents and thus the prognosis. There is a great need for personalized management approaches to avoid over- or under-treatment. Recently, a novel method revolutionized the world of cancer research: the clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9, an RNA-programmable system. The advantages of CRISPR Cas9 system mean simple and effective. It is increasingly being used in the field of BC research, including evaluation of the established therapies.
  1 2,751 270
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