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   2017| April-June  | Volume 2 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 22, 2017

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Therapeutic management of postoperative ileus
Lei Zhang, Xiaohui Xu
April-June 2017, 2(2):50-53
Postoperative ileus is one of the most common complications in patients after abdominal surgery and is a major determinant of recovery after surgery. It leads to increased postoperative morbidity, prolonged hospital stay, and increased costs. The pathogenesis of postoperative ileus is multifactorial, including pharmacological, neurogenic, and inflammatory mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the current therapeutic strategies for postoperative ileus.
  2,494 282 -
Application of clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats/cas9 editing technologies in breast cancer research
Biskup Ewelina, Lu Cai, Xiaoyan Lin, Craig Kingston, Fengfeng Cai
April-June 2017, 2(2):44-49
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most heterogeneous diseases. The specific clinical and pathological features of each patient's BC diagnosis determine the response to specific agents and thus the prognosis. There is a great need for personalized management approaches to avoid over- or under-treatment. Recently, a novel method revolutionized the world of cancer research: the clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9, an RNA-programmable system. The advantages of CRISPR Cas9 system mean simple and effective. It is increasingly being used in the field of BC research, including evaluation of the established therapies.
  1,546 149 1
Demographic and outcome disparities among New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania transplant recipients
Kamran Khanmoradi, Stalin Campos, Meredith Lynne Scott, Afshin Parsikia, Radi Zaki, Jorge Ortiz
April-June 2017, 2(2):25-31
Aim: Geographic variations in kidney transplant outcomes are well documented but poorly understood. This study aims to determine outcome variations among patients from three different states. Methods: A total of 917 renal transplant records were analyzed. Demographics and outcomes were retrospectively compared between the three states of New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), and Pennsylvania (PA) from 2001 to 2012. The variables were compared with Chi-square test or Mann–Whitney test. We used Kaplan–Meier methodology to compare survival. Results: Higher waitlist times between NY and NJ recipients resulted in earlier transplantation when relisted in Philadelphia. PA recipients received a higher proportion of high-risk and hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody-positive donors and were more likely to be HCV positive. PA recipients recorded the lowest rate of delayed graft function. Overall patient and graft survival rates at 1 and 3 years were not statistically different between the three states. However, by the end of the study, PA recipients exhibited the highest patient mortality and the highest retransplantation rates. Conclusion: One-year and 3-year patient and graft survival rates were not significantly different. This may be indicative of closer follow-up of PA recipients or longer wait times among NY and NJ candidates. Nevertheless, long-term outcomes were significantly worse in PA patients. Poor long-term outcome may be a manifestation of a sicker overall cohort. Medium-term transplantation results of those patients living in the favorable organ procurement organization are not negatively affected.
  1,531 119 -
Chronic electric stimulation in a preschool-aged girl with hypothalamic hamartoma and epilepsy
Jianfei Cui, Shuli Liang, Shaohui Zhang, Xiaohong Hu, Xiaoman Yu, Liu Yuan
April-June 2017, 2(2):32-36
Aim: This study aimed to report the first case of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in a preschool-aged child with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) and discuss the rationale and outcome of this treatment. Methods: A 5.5-year-old girl was diagnosed with HH and intractable epilepsy, including laughing seizures, tonic seizures, and atypical absence seizures, using magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalograph examination, quality of life (QOL), intelligence quotient (IQ), and memory quotient (MQ) tests. A right trans-temporal lobe approach HH stimulation was performed with a quadripolar electrode along the axial plane of the lesion. The initial stimulation parameters were a wave width of 90 μs, a stimulating frequency of 130 Hz, a voltage of 0.5 V, and a maintenance stimulation voltage of 2.0 V. Results: The girl achieved freedom from tonic seizure after 4 months of stimulation (1.5 V), freedom from laughing seizure after 7 months of stimulation (1.8 V), and a reduction by more than 80% of atypical absence seizure after implantation of the stimulation electrode. At the 18-month follow-up visit, the postoperative QOL, IQ, and MQ scores of the girl had improved more than 10% compared with the preoperative scores. There were no surgical- or stimulation-related complications. Conclusion: DBS is a safe and efficient approach in older preschool-aged patients with HH, and it provided freedom from tonic and laughing seizures, as well as a significant reduction of atypical absence seizure and improvement of IQ, MQ. and QOL.
  1,417 115 -
Comparing cryoballoon and radio frequency ablation for atrial fibrillation treatment: A Hospital-based follow-up study
Chaojun Wang, Li Chen, Honglan Ma, Chaofeng Sun
April-June 2017, 2(2):37-43
Aim: The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of cryoballoon ablation (CBA) for atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment, and compare it with radio-frequency ablation (RFA). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among AF patients who received CBA or RFA from November 2014 to January 2017 at The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University. All patients were followed up from discharge date to either occurrence of death or April 2017. Results: Totally, 154 patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria of having episodes of electrocardiogram-documented AF within 2 months before hospitalization, 13 patients were excluded due to predetermined exclusion criteria, 29 (13 in the CBA group and 16 in the RFA group) were lost to follow-up, and 133 patients (57 in the CBA group and 76 in the RFA group) completed follow-up. The primary efficacy endpoints (AF recurrence or repeat ablation) occurred in 17 patients in the CBA group and 29 patients in RFA group (1-year Kaplan–Meier event-rate estimates, 33.2% and 37.9%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43–1.5; P = 0.50). Long treatment success rate (no AF recurrence or repeat ablation during the follow-up) was 71.2% in CBA group and 64.6% in RFA, respectively (P = 0.47). The primary safety endpoints occurred in 10 patients in CBA group and 19 patients in the RFA group (1-year Kaplan–Meier event rate estimates, 17.3% and 21.2%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.34–1.57; P = 0.65). Conclusion: This paper presents the results of a first-ever study in a Chinese clinical setting and shows CBA had equivalent efficacy and safety in comparison to RAF as a treatment for AF. CBA is a promising new method for AF treatment.
  1,351 115 -
Surgical safety checklist: Outcomes and policing mechanics
Ahsan Zil-E-Ali, Afifa Riaz
April-June 2017, 2(2):54-55
  1,122 111 -