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SHORT COMMUNICATION
Minimally invasive treatment of pilonidal sinus disease using platelet-rich plasma
Ömer Karahan, Barış Sevinç, Gürcan Şimşek, Recep Demirgül
January-March 2016, 1(1):14-17
DOI:10.4103/2468-5585.179563  
Aim: Pilonidal disease is an inflammatory disorder, mainly affecting young adults. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is shown to have a positive impact on the wound healing process. Herein, the study aims to define the application of PRP and report early results. Methods: The study data were collected prospectively. PRP was prepared from the patients' own blood samples, transformed into gel form, and applied to the sinus tract under local anesthesia. Furthermore, the healing rate and recurrence rate of the disease were evaluated. Results: There were 50 cases included in the study, with 48 cases were cured at the end of the 1st month. At this stage, with a median follow-up of 15 months, there have been no documented recurrences. Conclusion: Minimally invasive treatment of pilonidal disease with PRP application has promising results. Treatment of pilonidal disease by PRP can be applied in outpatient clinic and provides total cure in a short time. The method is simple, painless, with no hospital stay required, less wound care, shorter time to return daily activity, and the cost is effective. However, long-term outcomes are unknown, and additional follow-up is required.
  5 3,797 350
REVIEW ARTICLE
Central venous catheterization: An updated review of historical aspects, indications, techniques, and complications
Rafael Cardoso Pires, Noslen Rodrigues, Jonathan Machado, Ricardo Pedrini Cruz
July-September 2017, 2(3):66-70
DOI:10.4103/ts.ts_10_17  
Central venous catheterization has become an indispensable procedure in various situations in the intensive care unit, emergency room and operation room. There are many applications such as invasive hemodynamic monitoring, parenteral nutrition support, dialysis, chemotherapy, fluid resuscitation and drug administration, though there are some complications associated with catheter placement. There are some articles that discuss the security and advantages of the anatomic landmark technique and ultrasound (US) guidance technique. In this non-systematic review article we searched the current data in Pubmed library.
  4 6,219 894
Biomaterials and surgical applications: The translational perspective
Brenda Vega-Ruiz, Rodrigo Ramos-Zúñiga, Ivan Segura Duran, Yara Ursiel-Ortega
October-December 2017, 2(4):85-102
DOI:10.4103/ts.ts_17_17  
Basic research provides the results necessary to pursue translational work, where basic and translational approaches used in conjunction can allow for an increased impact in solving public health problems. Biomaterials draws from both approaches and are used today in many surgical specialty areas, such as tissue regeneration and regenerative medicine. These materials can be used as replacements for tissue, as scaffolds for regeneration, as substrates for cell growth, as drug-releasing or bioactive molecule-releasing vehicles, and as several other medical devices. Biopolymers used in regenerative medicine provide a good example of such materials and demonstrate the methodology of a translational approach, where the product begins at the laboratory bench, is applied in preclinical stages, and is finally delivered as a new medical solution back to the patient. The biocompatible, biodegradable, and bioactive properties of some of these polymers have opened different possibilities for their use in the repair and/or regeneration of different tissues, including skin, bone, cartilage, nerves, liver, and muscle. This article serves as a review of the properties of these biopolymers, their use in tissue engineering, and promising alternatives in regenerative medicine.
  3 3,267 343
Medical applications of polyether ether ketone
Yitong Guo, Shenggui Chen, Jing Wang, Bingheng Lu
January-March 2018, 3(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/ts.ts_3_18  
Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) has been widely used during the past decades in the medical field. Its versatile nature makes PEEK very popular in a variety of medical devices. The purpose of this article is to summarize the medical applications of PEEK in following fields: cranioplasty, dental implants, interbody fusion, joint replacements, soft-tissue repairs, and cardiac surgery. PEEK, as a biocompatible polymer, has been used in fields related to tissue fixation and reconstruction. This is largely due to its superior mechanical characteristics and biocompatibility. The author believes that as collaboration between medical professionals and engineers becomes more standard, PEEK and its composites will become more available and versatile.
  3 2,725 415
CASE REPORTS
Bilateral sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma: An uncommon case in young female patient
Yuan Gao, Weibing Shuang, Xunan Tong, Yuhang Zhang
July-September 2017, 2(3):74-77
DOI:10.4103/ts.ts_6_17  
Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC), an advanced and uncommon form of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), is more likely to manifest as a unilateral condition, especially in the right kidney, in older people. Here, we report a rare case of bilateral SRCC in a young female, aged 30 years - the youngest reported case of SRCC to the best of our knowledge. The patient complained of osphyalgia and intermittent fever which recurred after symptomatic treatment. Detailed examination, including histopathological analysis of biopsies, confirmed bilateral SRCC (RCC IV) with distant metastases. The patient denied receiving any form of the treatment, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy and died approximately 6 months after the initial symptoms.
  1 1,695 156
A case of surgical enucleation of a giant esophageal leiomyoma
Shaohua Zhou, Shanshan Li, Nannan Guo, Wen Zhang
January-March 2017, 2(1):19-21
DOI:10.4103/ts.ts_28_16  
Esophageal leiomyoma is the most common benign esophageal tumor. When dealing with a giant esophageal tumor, tumor resection, and esophagogastric anastomosis are normally adopted by clinicians. However, postoperatively, patients always experience a poor quality of life because of the destruction of the normal anatomy. We present a case of resection of an esophageal leiomyoma with the integrity of esophagus maintained.
  1 2,080 189
Bilateral sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma: An uncommon case in young female patient
Yuan Gao, Weibing Shuang, Xunan Tong, Yuhang Zhang
Ahead of print schedule 0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/ts.ts_6_17  
Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC), an advanced and uncommon form of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), is more likely to manifest as a unilateral condition, especially in the right kidney, in older people. Here, we report a rare case of bilateral SRCC in a young female, aged 30 years - the youngest reported case of SRCC to the best of our knowledge. The patient complained of osphyalgia and intermittent fever which recurred after symptomatic treatment. Detailed examination, including histopathological analysis of biopsies, confirmed bilateral SRCC (RCC IV) with distant metastases. The patient denied receiving any form of the treatment, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy and died approximately 6 months after the initial symptoms.
  1 1,507 67
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The role of ischemia-modified albumin levels in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis
Ersin Turan, Baris Sevinç, Hüseyin Kurku, Gürcan Simsek, Recep Demirgül, Ömer Karahan
July-September 2017, 2(3):62-65
DOI:10.4103/ts.ts_13_17  
Aim: Although there are several auxiliary laboratory tests, diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA) mainly depends on clinical findings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) in the diagnosis of AA. Methods: IMA levels of histopathologically confirmed AA cases and healthy volunteers were evaluated. Results: Mean IMA levels were 9.6 ± 12.5 absorbance units (ABSU) in the AA group and 3.04 ± 0.47 ABSU in the control group. Moreover, IMA levels positively correlated with the diagnosis of AA (r = 0.309, P = 0.013). The preoperative mean IMA level was 9.6 ± 12.5 ABSU, while the postoperative mean IMA level was 6.9 ± 11.7 ABSU (P = 0.001). There was a significant decrease in IMA levels after appendectomy. Conclusion: This study shows elevated IMA levels in patients with AA and a significant decrease of IMA levels after appendectomy. Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of AA, and IMA levels can be used as an accessory parameter in diagnosis.
  1 1,959 195
Comparing cryoballoon and radio frequency ablation for atrial fibrillation treatment: A Hospital-based follow-up study
Chaojun Wang, Li Chen, Honglan Ma, Chaofeng Sun
April-June 2017, 2(2):37-43
DOI:10.4103/ts.ts_12_17  
Aim: The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of cryoballoon ablation (CBA) for atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment, and compare it with radio-frequency ablation (RFA). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among AF patients who received CBA or RFA from November 2014 to January 2017 at The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University. All patients were followed up from discharge date to either occurrence of death or April 2017. Results: Totally, 154 patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria of having episodes of electrocardiogram-documented AF within 2 months before hospitalization, 13 patients were excluded due to predetermined exclusion criteria, 29 (13 in the CBA group and 16 in the RFA group) were lost to follow-up, and 133 patients (57 in the CBA group and 76 in the RFA group) completed follow-up. The primary efficacy endpoints (AF recurrence or repeat ablation) occurred in 17 patients in the CBA group and 29 patients in RFA group (1-year Kaplan–Meier event-rate estimates, 33.2% and 37.9%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43–1.5; P = 0.50). Long treatment success rate (no AF recurrence or repeat ablation during the follow-up) was 71.2% in CBA group and 64.6% in RFA, respectively (P = 0.47). The primary safety endpoints occurred in 10 patients in CBA group and 19 patients in the RFA group (1-year Kaplan–Meier event rate estimates, 17.3% and 21.2%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.34–1.57; P = 0.65). Conclusion: This paper presents the results of a first-ever study in a Chinese clinical setting and shows CBA had equivalent efficacy and safety in comparison to RAF as a treatment for AF. CBA is a promising new method for AF treatment.
  1 1,743 153
The overexpression of leucine-rich repeat-containing g-protein-coupled receptor 5 in pituitary adenomas
Jiuzhou Li, Yuqi Zhang, Ningning Cheng, Quancheng Zhao, Hongen Liu, Shaowei Song
April-June 2016, 1(2):37-40
DOI:10.4103/2468-5585.185197  
Aim: To determine the leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) level in human pituitary adenomas and the role of LGR5 in the development of human pituitary adenomas. Methods: Immunohistochemistry is performed to determine the expression of LGR5 in pituitary adenomas and normal pituitaries. LGR5 expression level is determined by the criteria as follows. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate any significant differences of LGR5 among individual groups. The correlation between expression and the other clinical factors were evaluated by using the Mann-Whitney test and one-way ANOVA. Results: LGR5 is significantly overexpressed in pituitary adenomas compared to normal pituitaries. Conclusion: The overexpression of LGR5 may facilitate the growth of these tumors. Potentially, the finding in the study could be exploited to develop innovative molecular targeted diagnosis and treatment for human pituitary adenomas.
  1 2,028 249
High expression of mir-25 predicting poor prognosis in gastric cancer
Chuanli Ren, Wenshu Wang, Chongxu Han, Hui Chen, Deyuan Fu, Daxin Wang, Ming Shen
July-September 2016, 1(3):69-74
DOI:10.4103/2468-5585.191487  
Aim: The aim of this study was to explore miR-25 expression pattern and its prognostic value in gastric carcinoma (GC). Methods: MiR-25 expression was detected using miRNA-locked nucleic acid in situ hybridization in 180 patients with GC undergoing surgery. Correlation with clinicopathological features and overall survival (OS) was analyzed. Results: MiR-25 expression was decreased in 10.0% (18/180) of GC, increased in 62.2% (112/180), and unchanged in 27.8% (50/180), compared to samples of morphologically normal tissue taken from the same patient (P < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that high miR-25 expression, tumor stage, tumor status, node status, and tumor size were significant negative prognostic predictors for OS in patients with GC, and the results were shown as P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.002, P> 0.001, and P = 0.001, respectively. High miR-25 expression remained a significant predictor of shorter survival in stage II (n = 56, P = 0.015) and stage III (n = 92, P < 0.001) GC. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that tumor status (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79-4.62; P = 0.151), stage (HR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.30-3.94; P = 0.004), lymph node metastasis (HR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.73-2.68; P = 0.309), high expression of miR-25 (HR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.53-3.72; P < 0.001), and tumor size (HR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.40-3.74; P = 0.001) predicted shorter OS. Conclusion: High expression of miR-25 was associated with decreased OS. Thus, miR-25 may be useful for prognosis evaluation and may provide a novel treatment target in patients with GC.
  1 1,955 234
Specificity and potency of curcumin derivative 64PH in inhibiting HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation
Xueqian Li, Qiaowei Zheng, Yingchen Zhuo, Jingguo Chen, Wenbin Ma, Xue Zhao, Peipei Zhao, Xuanlin Liu, Haimin Lei, Junwang Xu, Weiyi Feng
January-March 2017, 2(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/ts.ts_38_16  
Aim: This study aimed to investigate the specificity and potency of curcumin derivative 64PH in inhibiting the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells in vitro. Methods: Various concentrations of 64PH were administrated to HepG2 hepatoma cells and HL7702 hepatic cells. The viability of cells was evaluated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The concentration-inhibition rates in the two cell lines were calculated, and the accumulation normal distribution function was adopted to fit their rate curves. The differences of the rates between the two cells were observed on the 3rd day of 64PH treatment. The maximum difference and the 95% credibility interval of the corresponding 64PH concentration were evaluated. Results: 64PH inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 and HL7702 cells in vitro. To fit the concentration-effect curves on the 3rd day, the determination coefficients (γ2) were more than 0.99, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 3.07 and 4.28 μg/mL of 64PH, respectively, and their ratio was 1.39. To fit the normal distribution function of the differences of concentration-inhibition rates between HepG2 and HL7702 cells (s2 = 0.9861), the maximum difference of inhibition rates was 33.58%, and the corresponding concentration of 64PH and the 95% credibility interval were 2.65 and 3.52 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: In vitro, HepG2 cells are more sensitive than HL7702 cells due to the presence of 64PH. The inhibition of cell proliferation induced by 64PH is stronger in HepG2 than in HL7702 at concentrations between 2.65 and 3.52 μg/mL. 64PH has the potential to be a therapeutic approach in hepatocellular carcinoma and to achieve the desired efficacy and safety.
  1 1,874 212
A modified uncut roux-en-y anastomosis in laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy: Balance of the cost and minimally invasion
Shun Zhang, Tao Du, Dongyi Yan, Xiaohua Jiang, Chun Song
January-March 2018, 3(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/ts.ts_20_17  
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the cost of minimally invasive surgery using a modified uncut Roux-en-Y anastomosis technique in laparoscopic distal radical gastrectomy patients with gastric cancer. Methods: Clinical and cost data were reviewed on the perioperative outcomes of 15 gastric cancer patients who received laparoscopic distal radical gastrectomy using uncut Roux-en-Y anastomosis from January 2016 to December 2016 in the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Shanghai East Hospital. Results: The mean operation time was 175 ± 30 min. Mean hospitalization expense was 9829 USD and mean linear stapler expense was 2940 USD. Laparoscopic distal radical gastrectomy with uncut Roux-en-Y anastomosis was successfully carried out in all the patients. There were no serious complications and no death in this series. Conclusion: Modified uncut Roux-en-Y anastomosis in laparoscopic distal radical gastrectomy may be a good way to balance the cost and minimally invasive surgery.
  1 2,080 213
MicroRNA-564 promotes the differentiation and proliferation of synovial mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes by targeting transforming growth factor beta 1
Xiangyi Sun, Pin Zhang, Lei Zhang, Jianning Zhao, Liwu Zhou
January-March 2018, 3(1):6-11
DOI:10.4103/ts.ts_23_17  
Aim: To investigate the role of miR-564 in promoting the proliferation and differentiation of synovial mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) to chondrocytes. Methods: Third-generation SMSCs were used, and the experiments involved untreated SMSCs (control; Group A), SMSCs transfected with Hsa-miR-564 inhibitor NC (inhibitor blank; Group B), and SMSCs transfected with Hsa-miR-564 inhibitor (Group C). The expression of miR-564 in SMSCs was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The SMSCs were induced to form cartilage for 3 weeks. The morphology of the induced chondrocytes was observed by hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue staining and cell viability recorded. Chondrocyte differentiation of SMSCs related to genes and proteins (COL2A1, Aggrecan, SOX9, transforming growth factor beta 1 [TGF-β1], and Smad4) was assessed. The chondrogenic effect of miR-564 was examined after blocking the target gene TGF-β1. Results: The morphology and characteristics of the induced cells were consistent with those of chondrocytes. The cell proliferative rate of Group C (miR-564 downregulation) was significantly higher than that of other groups. The expression of genes and proteins related to chondrocyte differentiation was significantly decreased in Group C. The relative expression of genes related to cartilage differentiation decreased after blocking TGF-β1. Conclusion: The downregulation mediated by miR-564 can promote the differentiation and proliferation of SMSCs into chondrocytes by targeting TGF-β1.
  1 1,514 185
REVIEW ARTICLE
Modeling neurodegenerative diseases by human pluripotent stem cell-induced brain organoid
Feng Tian, Jin Hao, Longyu Hu, Xu Luo, Rui Sun
April-June 2018, 3(2):42-47
DOI:10.4103/ts.ts_4_18  
Neurodegenerative disease (ND) contains a range of conditions which are primarily characterized by progressive neuronal dysfunction and loss. ND is particularly difficult to cure, due to the vulnerability of the nervous system. Currently, few genes and pathways are found to be related to ND. However, no solitary mechanism appears to be primary in neurodegeneration, and these pathogenic mechanisms likely act synergistically through complex interactions to promote neurodegeneration. Moreover, the existing treatment is mainly focusing on alleviating the symptoms of the disease. Furthermore, recent studies reveal considerable overlaps of symptomatology and genetic risks across the disease subtypes by detailed studies at cellular, molecular and genetic level. To better understand the etiology and pathogenesis of ND, study of the abnormalities at patient level is most ideal. However, direct access to the brain tissues from healthy individuals and patients is very limited. Therefore, an alternative experimental model is required to study the mechanism of ND. The most commonly used models are animal models, including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, zebrafish, and genetically modified mice. However, animal models also have their limitations including partial recapitulation of the disease features and difficulties in modifying disease genes. The recent development in three-dimensional (3D) brain organoids might provide a better experimental model to study ND, because 3D brain organoid system carries great potential to expand the range of both physiological and pathological features that can be found during the development of disease, enabling higher order investigation of mechanism and functionality.
  1 2,556 377
REVIEW ARTICLES
Advances in multi-therapies for the treatment of Ewing's sarcoma
Lei Zhang, Xing Zhou, Xiaozhou Liu, Chengjun Li, Sujia Wu
January-March 2017, 2(1):14-18
DOI:10.4103/ts.ts_32_16  
Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is a type of bone and soft tissue tumor that is highly invasive and primarily occurs in children and adolescents. In recent years, with the combination chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy, prognosis, and quality of life have significantly improved. The overall survival (OS) rate is 65%–75%. However, metastasis and recurrence after surgical resection are still the main determinants of mortality. The OS rate in these patients is <30%. Exploring the pathogenesis of ES and looking for effective targeted therapies are the primary focus of many research teams. A global effort to improve the clinical efficacy of chemotherapy while reducing the toxic side effects, has led to further advances. We summarize the current multidisciplinary treatment advances in ES, with an emphasis on molecular targeted therapy and immunotherapy.
  1 3,114 349
Application of clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats/cas9 editing technologies in breast cancer research
Biskup Ewelina, Lu Cai, Xiaoyan Lin, Craig Kingston, Fengfeng Cai
April-June 2017, 2(2):44-49
DOI:10.4103/ts.ts_2_17  
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most heterogeneous diseases. The specific clinical and pathological features of each patient's BC diagnosis determine the response to specific agents and thus the prognosis. There is a great need for personalized management approaches to avoid over- or under-treatment. Recently, a novel method revolutionized the world of cancer research: the clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9, an RNA-programmable system. The advantages of CRISPR Cas9 system mean simple and effective. It is increasingly being used in the field of BC research, including evaluation of the established therapies.
  1 2,007 225
* Source: CrossRef